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Gingivitis. Causes, symptoms, and treatment

What is Gingivitis?

Gingivitis is one of the most important diseases of the gums and teeth, which is represented by the occurrence of irritation, redness, and swelling that occurs in the gum to severe pain that may extend to the teeth. 

Gingivitis. Causes, symptoms, and treatment

Gingivitis is usually caused by the accumulation of a layer of sticky deposits or bacteria on the teeth, which is a non-destructive type of gum disease, but untreated gingivitis can develop into periodontitis, which is more serious and can eventually lead to dryness around the teeth and tooth loss.

Signs of gingivitis include redness and swellings that can bleed easily. In mild cases of gingivitis, patients may not even know that they have it, because the symptoms are mild, and they can be easily treated with a good cleaning of the mouth.

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Causes of gingivitis?

Among the reasons that lead to the development of Gingivitis are the following:

The main cause of gingivitis is the accumulation of food debris and bacteria on the surface of the teeth and in the spaces between the teeth and some of them, which leads to the formation of tartar at the gingival line of the teeth, causing swelling and inflammation of the gums.

Hormonal changes occur during pregnancy, adolescence, and menopause.

Random growth of teeth in their difficult to clean, and therefore inflammation of the gums occurs.

Lack of attention to oral and dental hygiene makes the gums more susceptible to allergies and inflammation.

Bacterial invasion of oral bacteria accelerates the development of gum swelling.

Taking some types of medications such as antispasmodic drugs and angina pectoris drugs.

Lack of saliva in the mouth increases the likelihood that you will develop gingivitis.

Who is most at risk of Gingivitis?

Gingivitis can occur in any category of people, but the incidence rate increases in the following cases:



Having diabetes mellitus.

Teeth Crowding.

Immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS or what is known as acquired immunodeficiency disease.

Oncological and oncological diseases.

Getting older.

Malnutrition and vitamin C deficiency.

Hereditary or genetic factors.

Medical history in the family.

Gingivitis occurs as a result of the accumulation of food residues and their adhesion on the surfaces of the teeth, between the teeth and some of them, and in the presence of bacteria, tartar forms and accumulates further to extend to the gums, which leads to redness and swelling of the gums, and the matter can worsen and develop into other complications such as bone necrosis.

Bacteria are naturally present in the mouth and work to protect and disinfect the mouth and are one of the types of beneficial bacteria, but in case of neglect of oral and dental hygiene, bacteria play the opposite role, which contributes to the formation of tartar and calcification on the tooth enamel and this causes inflammation

Symptoms of gingivitis

The symptoms of gingivitis are numerous, including:

Redness of the gums.

Swelling of the gums.

Pain in the gums or teeth.

Bad breath. bad breath.

Bleeding gums, sometimes bleeding.

Changes in the texture and general shape of the gums and dry mouth.

Abnormal growth of the gums may affect the places of the teeth in the mouth.

How is gingivitis diagnosed?

The length of the dental pocket is normal if its length varies between 1 to 3 cm. in the case of gingivitis, the length of the pocket increases even more.

The doctor also often resorts to X-ray diagnostics before treating Gingivitis to examine the jaw bones and surrounding tissues and make sure that the bone is not eroded or affected by Gingivitis.

Treatment of Gingivitis

Gingivitis can be treated in many different ways since the choice of appropriate therapy depends on the nature of the condition and the symptoms manifested. Various gingivitis treatment options include:

Rinse with salt water for 30 seconds two or three times a day.

The use of antibiotics such as penicillin, minocycline, or doxycycline.

Deep cleaning of the gums at the dentist.

Use herbs such as turmeric, cloves, and myrrh.

Gum grafting surgery is performed in advanced cases of Gingivitis.

Dentists and periodontists are advised to adhere to several instructions to maintain the integrity of the gums and protect them from exposure to inflammation and bacterial invasion, including these tips:

Use an electronic toothbrush.

Use a toothbrush at least twice a day.

Continue to use dental floss at least once a day.

Rinse your mouth constantly with an antiseptic mouthwash.

Pay attention to the quality of food, and eat vegetables and fruits.

How can gingivitis be prevented?

Brushing your teeth prevents the accumulation of germs on the surface of the teeth, while the use of dental advice helps to get rid of food debris and germs and remove them from the spaces between the teeth and under the gum line.

According to the guidelines of the American Dental Association, antibacterial mouthwash products can help reduce the number of germs in the mouth, which in turn leads to the formation of a germ layer and the occurrence of gum infections.

Therefore, the following is recommended for the Prevention of Gingivitis:

Brushing teeth at least twice a day to prevent tooth decay leading to gingivitis. 

Use a good-quality brush. 

Use of mouth rinsing preparations. 

Use mouthwash and teeth wash constantly. 

Maintaining the rules of Public Health and personal hygiene.

The use of protective toothpaste against tooth decay.

Complications of Gingivitis

Without undergoing treatment, gum disease can spread and affect tissues, teeth, and bones, leading to complications, including:

The occurrence of an infection in the gums and an abscess in the gingival tissue may extend to the jawbone.

Frequent Gingivitis.

Susceptibility to ulcers on the gums.

Gingivitis can cause necrosis of the jaw bones.

Cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack, and stroke, in addition to the risk of lung disease.

However, such complications can be avoided, as treating gingivitis and following the dentist's instructions can prevent complications.


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